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The Truth About Converging Verticals in Architectural Photography

The Truth About Converging Verticals in Architectural Photography

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There is a long standing convention in photography that if a building has straight sides, then that is how it should look in a photograph. Almost any textbook you pick up about photography (especially architectural photography) will mention and stress this point. Now, while making sure your verticals are vertical is a skill any photographer should have (and one that we will detail in this article), there is an important point to make.

On many occasions, converging verticals in a photograph look damn cool! Look at these dramatic examples:

Virgin Conception Сathedralphoto © 2008 Andrew Kuznetsov | more info (via: Wylio)
trans america towerphoto © 2008 Paul Hart | more info (via: Wylio)
Skyscraper in HDRphoto © 2008 William Warby | more info (via: Wylio)
Blanco Rotta-B&Wphoto © 2009 JR F | more info (via: Wylio)

 

If you like the dramatic effect of converging verticals then, by all means, continue shooting that way. It’s difficult to imagine that the visual appeal of Gotham City or Blade Runner’s Los Angeles could be maintained without the occasional converging vertical and similar results can be had in real life by intentionally chasing this visual effect (usually by getting up close with a wide angle lens or tilting the camera to look up). Sometimes the entire visual effect of an image relies on defying some convention or other.

However, if you’d like to straighten up those verticals (and it’s probably a skill you should at least have as a photographer, even if you don’t plan to use it) then let’s look at what you can do. This article is more about shooting skills than trying to dictate what you should do or how you should shoot. Keeping the verticals vertical can be done like this:

p.v. jensen-klint 10, grundtvig memorial church 1913-1940photo © 2007 seier+seier | more info (via: Wylio)

 

Step Back – Getting further away from a building, especially if you’re using a wide angle lens, will change the perspective and make the vertical lines straighter. Sometimes this isn’t going to be possible (such as in dense cities) but if it’s possible, then getting away from the building and shooting from a distance is usually the best option to straighten up the vertical sides of the building.

Level the Camera – Tilting the camera up, especially with a wide angle lens (but with others too), will give you converging verticals. Try to keep the sensor parallel to the buildings. This is as simple as keeping the camera level and resisting that urge to tilt it higher. Again, this isn’t always possible, but it’s something to keep in mind if you want straighter vertical lines.

Get Higher – Following on from the last point about keeping your sensor parallel to the face of the building you are photographing, sometimes one of the easiest (or only) ways to do that is to get a higher vantage point – often by taking the photograph from another building so that you can get high off the ground.

Think Foregrounds – If you are using a wide angle lens, and cannot get further away or climb a nearby building, then have a look around for an interesting foreground. If you can find something of interest to include in the foreground of your shot, then it will look as if the composition is intentional and you will still have nice, straight verticals and an interesting foreground to boot.

Get a Shift Lens – A shift lens basically allows you to control the mid point or center line of an image so (for our purposes) you can fit more in without the problem of converging verticals. You can read more about the wonders of shift lens here, but if you’re doing a lot of architectural shooting it’s a piece of equipment that you should seriously consider.

Get Your Post Production Skills Kicking – It is quite possible to use many different pieces of photography post-production software to straighten up your verticals. As always, it’s probably best to do as much as you can “in-camera” while you are shooting, but sometimes, if that’s just not possible, then you will need to go with the software option. There is a nice little tutorial on straightening verticals in Photoshop that you can read here and one for GIMP users here.

This is basically a process of elimination. If one strategy doesn’t work, then move onto the next (or combine them) and you will start to see that the vertical lines get closer to straight. As we mentioned at the beginning, if you’re looking for dramatic converging verticals to add impact to your architectural photography then you may not even use these techniques, but it’s nice to have the skills to shoot straight verticals if you ever change your mind.

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13 Comments

  • Hamish Niven:

    Great advice to photographers and lovely examples.
    What you did not mention is that when converging verticals as in the examples above, the convergence should be exaggerated, not very slightly out, ie obvious it was deliberate.
    And, as with your examples, that placing the building / converged subject matter in the centre of the frame makes for the strongest composition.

    June 6, 2011 at 9:23 pmReply

  • Russell Cavanagh:

    A rule that came in as photography became more able to aid early technical drawing for architectural draughtsmen. Like all good rules, it’s occasionally asking to be broken.

    Of course, those without a 5×4 could use GIMP or Photoshop to correct those verticals where required or desired … http://russellcavanagh.me.uk/2011/06/05/sheffield-university-arts-tower/

    Nice pics BTW … 8-)

    June 6, 2011 at 11:21 pmReply

  • Daniel Fealko:

    One can also use the free utility called ShiftN to correct distortion. See: http://www.photofidelity.com/blog/shiftn-automatically-correct-perspective-distortion.html

    June 7, 2011 at 2:46 amReply

  • Avatar of toadhollowtoadhollow:

    Great article. This totally applies to my personal style of photography and it sure is great to come here and read a fantastic article like this on the topic.

    June 7, 2011 at 9:19 amReply

  • Avatar of catzcatz:

    Hey guys…i just saw a tweet from Scott Kelby…

    “@ScottKelby: Best article on photographing buildings I’ve read in a while. It will make some people mad, but it made me very happy!”

    For those of you that don’t know who he is (and I’m sure that’s not many of you), here’s a link to his wiki page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scott_Kelby

    Cheers to you Lightstalking!

    June 8, 2011 at 4:03 amReply

  • BSDVisions:

    Very informative article, photographs are stimulating to the eye – super album! Thanks for posting.

    2361731216

    June 8, 2011 at 4:14 amReply

  • MFFotos:

    Done well, converging verticals can make a high-impact image. I agree with Hamish; it has to look intentional.
    You can also make corrections in Adobe Lightroom 3. In the Develop module go to Lens Corrections, Manual and use the Vertical slider.
    Another fun technique for high-impact is to intentionally tilt the horizon. One of the worst mistakes by snap shooters is not correcting that slight tilt. Maybe a topic for LightStalking to address in the future.

    June 8, 2011 at 5:09 amReply

  • gordon:

    Love the blog, love the tutorials. Hate the hdr.

    June 13, 2011 at 1:44 pmReply

  • Chris:

    It’s a good article and I have to say that I agree, converging verticals can add some mood and drama to a shot. I also agree with the comments saying it should look intentional.
    All my correction is done in PS, but I would LOVE a shift lens for one reason. Composition. I can correct in PS no problem, but what can be fairly hard, is managing to visualise what the shot will look like once it’s done. Often ending up with excessively wide shots to account for the edit, or not leaving quite enough room for it. Being able to see the image through the viewfinder and compose around it would be amazing.

    June 25, 2011 at 4:38 amReply

  • Leigh Gray:

    Image 4. Definitely have to get this editing style into my wedding photography. Great work

    July 9, 2011 at 6:20 pmReply

  • John:

    What I see too frequently, esp. with shift lenses, is a tendency to overcook the verticals where they almost look wider the higher up the buildings go.

    July 25, 2011 at 9:01 pmReply

  • Mike Stoba:

    Thankyou, for reminding Rules are allowed to be broken, or bent, just don’t allow the Wide angle to bend the Verticals, then it can be uncomfortable to look at.
    Also thankyou for being about the only teaching site to link to GIMP tutorials, the others assume one can afford PS, yet GIMP is part of my learning process.

    September 25, 2012 at 12:31 amReply

  • Avatar of jeffwickliffejeffwickliffe:

    Good article, though I break the rule as often as possible.
    It adds so much more drama to do an extreme angle.
    8683892763_018c80bbce_b.jpg

    May 20, 2013 at 8:46 amReply

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