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Light is the main ingredient in the mix of elements that make an image. Content, composition, technique will all pale if the light isn’t “right.” But is there a “right” light? Here are some common lighting situations that could help you create compelling shots. Stalk the light, and you will see your images increase their wow factor.
Back lighting happens when the light source is behind the subject. This means that the light is directly in front of the camera, with the subject in between. The photo of the dancer sitting was lit with two windows behind him, lighting him like a halo around his head and body. This line of light around a subject is called “rim light,” as it creates a rim of light outlining the subject. To shoot this kind of shot, use exposure compensation, overexposing to making sure you have a balance between the bright light you want to capture, and the subject’s features.
Rim light on a Balinese dancer. Copyright Aloha Lavina
In cases of really bright light behind the subject, like in this shot of colorful spools of thread in by a window, the patterns created by the light and shadow make for an interesting picture.
Back light creates interesting shadows. Copyright Aloha Lavina.
When the light is right in front of the subject, it is easier photograph, but if the light is directly in front of the subject, it may result in a “flat” photo. “Flat” lighting is light that evenly spreads on the subject. I try to avoid this because it makes a photo look two-dimensional; it is the shadows in a photo that create a three-dimensional effect.
In the photo of the dancers putting on makeup, their light source is directly in front of their faces. I could have taken the shot with the light behind me, but I broke away from that and instead focused on the mirror one of the dancers was holding. My thinking was, the composition was more interesting with the dancers echoing each other’s postures. But most importantly, the light from the window was reflected on their faces into the mirror, and the mirror’s image was thus well lit for my camera to capture.
Lighting Balinese dancers with front lighting. Copyright Aloha Lavina.
Light from Above
Light from above of course is quite common. When you travel, mostly the sun is your light source, and most of the day the sun is right above your subjects. So it’s important to know how the light from above will affect your images, and what you can do to minimize the shadows that the sun from above will invariably create in your subjects.
Early mornings and late afternoons are great because the sunlight is more orange; the angle of the light is also more from the side, especially at sunrise and sunset. But also in the hours right after sunrise and the hours just before sunset, the light is not as harsh as in midday.
Having said that, though, one of my favorite shots from Burma was taken at around 11 am. This man was sleeping in his cart while his oxen were grazing. The shadows were harsh, but it worked because the content of the photo made for a good contrast. To get this shot, I had to close up aperture and used exposure compensation to get details in the sky and the immediate subjects in front of me.
Light from a high sun. Copyright Aloha Lavina.
This is arguably my favorite kind of light. Side light is light coming from the left or right of the subject. It was used by the masters of painting—Rembrandt used side light in his paintings to give the picture a three dimensional effect. When the light falls on one side of the subject, the other side is in shadow. The shadows are what give the picture a 3D look.
The monk walking past old wooden doors shows how shadow and light can create the contours that make the subject look three-dimensional.
Side lighting. Copyright Aloha Lavina.
Like every skill, seeing the light—its direction and quality—takes practice. But with some basic knowledge of lighting situations, any person with a camera can “practice the right skill” and do what photographers do: stalk that light, capture it, and make it look fantastic.
Aloha Lavina is an Asia based photographer whose photographs have appeared in CNNGo (USA), Canon PhotoYou Magazine (Singapore), Seventeen magazine (USA), Estamos! (Ecuador), The Korea Times (South Korea), and several books. You can see her work at her website, read her articles on her blog or follow her on Twitter.